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What is a wet scrubber?

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Wet scrubber is a device used for pollution control and air purification. It is mainly used to remove particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in industrial waste gas. Its working principle is to capture and remove pollutants by bringing a liquid (usually water or a solution containing chemical reagents) into contact with the exhaust gas, using the liquid’s ability to absorb, dissolve or react. Wet scrubbers are widely used in various industrial fields, such as electric power, chemical industry, steel, cement, etc., to meet environmental protection emission standards.

How wet scrubbers work

The working process of a wet scrubber mainly includes the following steps:

  • Gas-liquid contact: The exhaust gas passes through the interior of the scrubber and fully contacts the sprayed liquid. Depending on the design of the scrubber, this contact can be achieved by means of sprays, packing beds or rotation.
  • Pollutant capture: Gaseous pollutants and particulate matter are captured by liquids through physical or chemical processes. For example, acidic gases can be neutralized by alkaline solutions, and particulate matter can be washed away by liquids.
  • Gas-liquid separation: The treated gas and the liquid containing pollutants are separated, the clean gas is discharged, and the liquid containing pollutants enters the treatment system or is recycled.

Wet scrubber type

Wet scrubbers can be divided into several main types based on their design and working mechanism:

  1. Spray Tower: Spray liquid into the exhaust gas through a nozzle. It is suitable for treating high-temperature exhaust gas and exhaust gas containing a large amount of particulate matter.
  2. Packed Bed Scrubber: The exhaust gas passes through the tower filled with special packing and fully contacts the liquid. It is suitable for treating gaseous pollutants.
  3. Venturi Scrubber: Utilizes the acceleration and deceleration of air flow in the Venturi tube to strongly mix liquid and gas, and is suitable for efficient removal of particulate matter.
  4. Rotary Scrubber: Mixes liquid and gas through rotating blades, suitable for treating sticky or easily condensed pollutants.
Wet scrubber

Advantage
Efficient removal of pollutants:
Wet scrubbers have efficient removal capabilities for a variety of gaseous and particulate pollutants.
Strong adaptability: able to handle exhaust gases of various compositions and concentrations.
Cooling effect: It has a cooling effect on high-temperature exhaust gas and protects subsequent processing equipment.

Shortcoming
Water consumption: A large amount of water is consumed and wastewater containing pollutants is produced.
Corrosion problem: When dealing with corrosive gases, equipment is susceptible to corrosion and requires the use of corrosion-resistant materials or anti-corrosion treatment.
High maintenance costs: The equipment is complex and the maintenance and operation costs are high.

Applications
Thermal power plants: used to remove sulfur dioxide (SO₂) and fly ash produced during coal combustion.
Chemical plants: used to treat harmful gases and particulate matter emitted during production processes.
Steel plant: used to capture dust and harmful gases generated during the steelmaking process.
Wet scrubbers play an important role in modern industrial pollution control. Through reasonable design and operation, they can effectively reduce the impact of industrial emissions on the environment.

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